A retinal detachment occurs when the retina is pulled away from its normal position in the back of the eye. The retina is the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the inside of the eye and sends visual messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Retinal detachment can cause permanent vision loss if not treated in time.
There are 3 types of RD:
A retinal detachment can occur at any age, but it is more common in people over age of 40.
Common risk factors for developing RD are-
Retinal hole or breaks are treated with laser photocoagulation or cryopexy (a freeze treatment) as outdoor procedure. During laser treatment, dot like burns are placed around the hole to "weld" the retina. In Cryopexy the area around the hole is frozen and it helps reattach the retina.Retinal detachments are treated with surgery viz sceral buckling and complex vitreoretinal surgery involving use of Silicon oil or gases.
In scleral bucking, a silicon band, is placed anchored with stitches around the eyeball to gently push the wall of the eye against the detached retina.
In vitrectomy - The surgeon makes tiny incisions in the sclera (white portion of the eye). Vitrectomy instruments are placed inside the eye to take out the vitreous gel and it is replaced with silicon oil or gases to push the retina in place .Laser or cryopexy is done around the breaks to seal it.
With modern vitreoretinal instrumentation, around 90 percent of cases with a retinal detachment can be successfully treated, Visual results are good if the retinal detachment is repaired before the macula (the centre region of the retina responsible for fine, detailed vision) detaches. Thus it is important to contact your retina surgeon in time when you notice any flashes or floaters or a curtain in field of vision.